Vertebrata- Dendrobates leucomelas 

The organisms belonging to the Subphylum Vertebrata possess a set of vertebrae, or hollow structures which combine to make the spinal column, made of cartilage or of bone and cartilage combined.  The vertebrate integument (skin) is normally comprised of two sections- the outer epidermis which is secreted by the ectoderm and an inner endodermis which is secreted by the mesoderm.  The organisms normally have a closed circulatory system with a heart of 2, 3, or 4 chambers. 

Vertebrata have a well-developed coelom which contains the viscera.  The metabolic waste excretory system is comprised of paired kidneys.  Most organisms have an endocrine system, a complicated nervous system, separate sexes and a complete digestive system with well-developed associated glands such as the liver and pancreas ventral to the spinal column and with a separate mouth and anus.

The Subphylum Vertebrata includes eight classes of vertebrates: Myxini, Cephalaspidomorphi, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia.

Vertebrata- Phascolarctos cinereus 

  1. Diversity of vertebrates. (2010). Retrieved from
  2. Ramel, G. (2010). The vertebrata. Retrieved from 

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